Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Sample details Pages: 12 Words: 3469 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2018/12/19 Category Management Essay Type Case study Level High school Tags: Organization Essay Did you like this example? Cross-cultural management focusses on studying the behavior of individuals from different cultures working together in an organizational setting. It deals with traditional behavioral issues in a workplace such as motivation, leadership, communication, and decision making (Velo, 2011), thus concentrating more on the micro-level study of people within an organization rather than the macro-level study of agencies themselves. Managing cross-cultural issues in international businesses involves more than hygiene factor of the dual-factor motivation theory, and embracing cultural diversity may bring either success or failure of a company. Key Findings Unclear branding positioning is the major cross-cultural management issue analyzed in this research. Brand positioning refers to giving brand benefits focusing on all points of contact with a consumer, giving them a reason to buy that brand in preference of others (Holden, 2006). It involves identifying a location of similarity or difference to create a proper brand identity and a clean brand image. For a business to attain a distinctive area in a market, it had to choose a market niche and gave a differential advantage carefully. It is this area that Marks and Spencer failed in the Chinese market, which is forcing the company to withdraw and close down its stores. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Cross-Cultural Management Issue" essay for you Create order Main Recommendation Unclear branding positioning of the MS clothing line brought about disappointing results for the whole merchandise, with a 5.8% drop in sales (Mellahi, Jackson, Sparts, 2002). However, the companys food products are growing stronger and recorded high sales regardless of the cross-cultural management issue. Should reasonable measures be taken on general merchandise and clothing, the company would still be stable in recording top transactions and would not have considered withdrawing from China market. Since the Chinese are proud of buying the MS foods, necessary measures ought to be taken to improve the latter thus would not have to close its stores. Introduction About Marks and Spencer MS is a leading retailer in the UK whose headquarters are in Westminster, London. The company specializes in production and sale of clothes, home products, and luxury foods. Launched by Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer in 1884, the company started selling branded products and currently has 979 store in U.K and many other international outlets (Wildman, Griffith, Armon, 2016). The company has recently observed low sales in clothing while food sales are tremendously increasing. Issues and Affected Stakeholders Unclear branding positioning is the major problem affecting the company leading to the stores closure. The giant retailer is speeding up its plans to close down non-performing clothing stores and slowing down the expansion of its food chain (Wildman, Griffith, Armon, 2016). MS is no longer attractive and competitive as it used to be regardless of brand, quality, and price. The company is focusing on reshaping its market and concentrating on most successful locations to restore its high street fortunes. Due to the continued losses in China, the company is withdrawing from the Chinese market, and this will lead to the closure of about ten stores. It is substantially affecting the business, shareholders, and the retail industry. Aims and Outcomes Much as the Chinese love British products, it is unlikely that one will go up the vast building to pick a single imported product available next door in a smaller retail shop or buy expensive fancy clothes while there is a cheaper local alternative. It is unclear positioning that is causing MS to fail in this broad Chinese market thus giving an advantage to domestic companies. This analysis will, therefore, focus on ambiguous branding positioning as a cross-cultural management issue for the MS Company, alongside other problems affecting the success of the business. Discussion Approach to Cross-Cultural Management While the Chinese consider MS foods as premium, British, and high quality, they have a different opinion for fashion and merchandise as it does not gain traction. However, from a product perspective, MS delivers exceptional fashion hit, for example, the legendary dusty coat of AW13 (Warner Joynt, 2011). The retailer excellently positions its food offers through attractive communications and smart activations. With the focus on top quality, organic, and British produce, MS is keeping it simple and sustainable to meet customer expectations. The organization is slowly losing its obsession to protect its market share. Instead of trying to retain its market position by being all things to people a task that is almost impossible, MS is trying to redo its brand by moving upmarket. Its direction of travel is also evident since MS is not opening any more clothing branches, in fact, it is closing stores. After alienating the loss-making market, mark and spencers profits jumped from Euro 2 5.1m to 118.3m (Mellahi, Jackson, Sparts, 2002). The strategy does not look like a bad thing for the company. Besides, MS is significantly defeating traditional supermarkets regarding sales and profits regardless of its high prices. Engagement MS and its shareholders are making huge steps to make the company sales growth. The company is prioritizing improving performance in womenswear as well as increasing the food business, boosting margins, and observing tight control of costs. These move that MS is making towards brand positioning and supply chain will ultimately improve sales and profit margins if they work correctly. MS for instance, by increasing the product designs to 25pc and delivering clothing to stores more frequently, it will succeed to boost availability in stores and introducing new fashion frequently (Mellahi, Jackson, Sparts, 2002). The company now wants to focus on profits and generating cash instead of sales. In fact, the chief executive promised to improve MS profit margins in the clothing arm by 1pc, and the interim results already show growth in margins by 1.5pc (Warner Joynt, 2011). The improvement in margin is a sign that MS fashion business is picking up. The trend is a back up to the CEOs cl aims that the company is improving its quality and style of fashion. It is also gradually recovering from the discounting tradition. Marks and Spencer launched a marketing campaign using ?spend It Well slogan to represent a radical departure for its brand. ?Spend It Well is a slogan representing both food and clothing, and is the first series of advertisements for the brand (Nisbett et al., 2001). MS intends to promote a prevalent attitude that connects customers regardless of their age and demographic. The company, therefore, is using the slogan to focus on emotive experiences, such as being a music festival or waiting tables at the restaurant for consumers whether young or aged. There is entirely a revolution taking place as MS is adopting the discipline of increasing ads. It notably spent 4.9m pounds last year on advertisement campaign. The company now uses the review section of glossies and national press to promote fashion of its women clothing ranges. In fact, when the c ompany advertises its products, the sales rise. The company is taking up measures to revolve around products, merchandising, marketing, and pricing to bring a positive change that will bring about profit growth. Operations The new chief executive is changing the retailers strategy from owning expensive stores to growing the networks of franchise shops. Rowe wants to turn around MS after acquiring a company struggling with womens fashion. The executive aims at scaling back international expansion for the firm to dismantle the past legacy. Interestingly, Rowe already has scrapped down more than 500 head office jobs and reduced the senior management in an attempt to cut down operational costs. The chief executive also agrees that clothes prices are too high and has cut the rates for men and women fashion by up to 15% (Mellahi, Jackson, Sparts, 2002). Another move the company is making is selling its franchise in Hong Kong and Macau. It views this as a more profitable act and consumer-centric for international business. It has led to the closure of several stores in global markets particularly China. Through this, the company is focusing on growing established the franchise, joint ventures, and opera ting fewer stores. The shift and the considerable focus on the franchise model for global niches will significantly benefit MS. It will also help in focusing on the better building of brand image and developing its food products. Although the companys business is failing in China, the shift to focus on food is a worthy move. Analysis Critiques MS differentiates itself from competitor businesses through its brand name. The company gained massive recognition through its affordable quality and different product offerings. The positioning as a quality retailer is, unfortunately, losing its influence which is leading to the continuous sales decline (Nisbett et al., 2001). The company needs to seriously re-evaluate and restore its reputation and brand positioning for it to salvage its sales. The poor selection of store location, as well as reduced maintenance and structure of premises, is not doing MS any justice. The brand is currently more divided as ever since as people shop for food for pleasure, shopping for general merchandise is falling due to the functional stocking of basics and a series of unclear sub-brands (Burt et al., 2012). Even the fans of MS are now keeping quiet because they see it as a place to find hidden gems and not something to shout about in any real or virtual aspirational platforms. Clothing and th e general merchandise seems to be entirely a kettle of fish. Although many go in for socks, pants, and other small stuff, the rest of the more extensive confusing fashion line misses the mark. According to Nisbett et al. (2001), the supply chain has problems relating to timing and strategic entrance, location, and lack of integration. Marks and Spencer offer products that do not attract customers due to inappropriate designs and poor presentation in the Chinese market. Besides, the prices are too high and uncompetitive compared to the local offering. Many Chinese customers complain about packaging and labeling since the company does not include interpretations in a language they understand (Cartwright, Mccormick, Warnaby 2016). On the contrary, MS branches in the UK are well designed and presented correctly, and the market representation is so unique as opposed to the Chinese market. It is such unclear positioning that is making the company fail in China. The promotion side a lso has many weaknesses since there is no store and brand awareness about MS among people. It is even shocking that many Chinese heard of MS after starting to give discounts to close the stores (Cartwright, Mccormick, Warnaby, 2016). It is this rumor that made them know the company exists, an indication that the company is not taking an interest in marketing. MS uses a tiny advertisement budget which lacks to achieve a proper target audience. The business has zero social and cultural understanding, the main reason that facilitated stupid rumors about MS in China. Getting the products right in the fashion industry is crucial. In recent years MS experienced business downturns and lousy brand image due to being old fashioned. Although the company is recovering, it is repeating the same mistake in the Chinese market. According to (Cartwright, Mccormick, Warnaby, 2016), poor sizing, old fashion, poor positioning, and competitive offers are factors making the fashion products to fail . These are making Chinese shoppers show low interest because the clothes are too big and simple. The overall brand positioning is a mess. Evaluation of CCM Criteria In my opinion, the company is doing very little to stress more about its strengths. The retailer prices its products way beyond the market expectations, therefore, needs to adjust the amounts and market efficiently. The company lacks an accessible and broad marketing platform are necessary to succeed in external markets. It, therefore, has not done enough to solve its cross-cultural issues hence the failure. Again, MS traditionally shies away from above-the-line advertising and relies on in-store marketing and point-of-sale (Nisbett et al., 2001). The organization mainly does not seem convinced on investing in costly national TV campaigns. The companys advertising manager says that they will continue with in-store marketing because they have many loyal customers (Peterson Castro, 2006). This kind of thinking is wrong. The company needs to invest in promotional strategies to succeed in the competitive Chinese market. In this case, the company is failing in its cross-cultural man agement and therefore the problem is not appropriately addressed. Chinese shoppers spend much time on social media which creates a rapid and cheap delivery of goods leading to a booming e-commerce sector. MS, on the other hand, is building its online presence which is attracting pure comfort to expats because the retreat from high street will mean lower sales in food and wine in China (Nisbett et al., 2001). In short, the company continues to make losses due to little brand awareness and the fact that it is going online shows the determination to improve. MS is enlarging its scale of online shopping because Chinese consumers opt for more choices and great convenience is a great move. Rowe, the Chief Executive, has a strategy to reduce price ranges and cutting down on clearance sales and promotions while still improving the services (Warner Joynt, 2011). Since he also has programs to close some stores and restructuring others to reflect more online sales, the company is making moves to correct its mistakes. Although the plans are radicle, it shows to be a right strategy for the overall good of the society. The company may not be recording considerable differences in profits and loss accountability, but the thing is, MS is trying a lot to rectify the cross-cultural issues. The company embarked on closing underperforming departments and accelerating the expansion of the food chain. It also has five-year transformation plans to pin primary cost-cutting drives to reduce running costs by 10% from Euro 3.4bn (Peterson Castro, 2006). The company is making adequate progress to remedy urgent issues. The underlying clothing sales were initially flat, but since the company started making changes, a better outcome is now visible; an indication that MS is successfully tackling its issues. Recommendations Possible solutions and Appropriate Actions Focusing on a single occasional item is not enough for addressing the various brand problems surrounding Mark and Spencers fashion. The company has both a brand portfolio and masterpiece issue because with many sub-brands to navigate (Alden, Steenkamp, Batra, 2003). For example, having the autograph, indigo, and Classic among other sub-brands, its fashion experience looks confusing and disjointed. MS can focus on reducing some sub-brands instead of trying its master brand more likable. It could, for instance, have the entire fashion line just known as MS instead of hiding in these many sub-brands. MS has to become clearer about what it stands for, for it to increase the strength of the master brand. The company is in a better position for its quality which has always been part of its heritage. As proven by food, MS can quickly get it right by delivering quality products at a premium. Therefore, for further quality message differentiation, MS can adopt the British message qualit y. Although the company brands are dipped into Britishness through ranges such as ?Best of British, doing this through sub-brands instead of the master brand message is not competent enough to change the overall perception of the brand (Alden, Steenkamp, Batra, 2003). Furthermore, the company can look at other successful British premium brands and then establish the various elements of Britishness it can own and weave into its messaging. Other retailers are pursuing aggressive marketing strategies and repositioning their brands to compete with MS. Others like Asda are setting themselves to match the MS quality and at better prices. On the advertising side, MS ought to address the brand issues head-on instead of focusing on a single product or a seasonal story (Burt et al., 2002). The company can for example overtly acknowledge contradictions in its brand in a cheeky way, just like Skoda did recently. Doing this would be like tapping into real consumer truth rather than adding mo re products in an ambiguous manner that doesnt even get into the core of the matter. In addition to brand strategy, portfolio, and messaging, the CEO should focus on ensuring the in-store experience and product offers live up to enviable heritage and reputation of the brand. Currently, the brand experience defines the name, and neither the customers nor the fans would attest that MS shop experience embodies British quality. The business can notably increase productivity through a focus on IT, by optimizing the number of people who work on projects and improving the speed of delivering solutions (Burt et al., 2002). The management can build a self-service agility and teamwork between the business and IT to restructure its services and productivity. The company needs to revise its pricing strategy to match the local terms using a fare basis and customer purchasing power. Clients and public relation management is an essential factor for long-term success. Premium price justifies the reason for inclusion and MS can use this as a competitive tool against other retailers. Not to mention, the store structure should correspond to Chinese trends for people to find it safe and comfortable. If the company incorporates the above recommendations is its marketing, it will achieve its goals and objectives in China. Conclusions The Chinese market is a promising one and is generating a massive turnover for established brands. Because the consumer market is shifting to less developed countries, MS should not lose its place in these significant emerging markets. I would say that Ms underestimated the uniqueness of the Chinese market by not choosing the proper market strategy for entry. It is this that has brought about barriers in language, social class, culture among others. The China model of MS proves the importance of global marketing. A strong brand with excellent heritage and quality products is failing in the market, the same market overtaking US luxury goods consumption. The essential factor is an appreciation of the market localization and uniqueness, proper cross-cultural management, which ultimately make a difference in market entry and strategy that MS has been struggling with for long. For Marks and Spencer to win back its market niche and get profits, it needs to reduce the number of sub- brands in both men and women wear. A loyalty scheme would also encourage consumers and give MS information about how and when customers shop, the preferences, and personal information. The company also needs to redefine and recognize their target audience, as well as go back to basics that made the successful before the tragic drop in sales. Although globalized, fashion requires localization when entering a new market. Many western companies such as MS forget to localize their styles and advertising. The use of celebrity images from UK and Europe fails to resonate with Chinese consumers. It is crucial that the company uses the right product selection and style for its advertising image. It has to be customized to suit the Chinese market. The company also requires solving merchandizing issues through brand customization because different customers have different behaviors and fashion preferences. References Velo, V. (2011). Cross-cultural management. New York: Business Expert Press. Holden, N. (2006). Cross-cultural management: a knowledge management perspective. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall. Wildman, J. L., Griffith, R. L., Armon, B. (2016). Critical issues in cross cultural management. Switzerland: Springer. Warner, M., Joynt, P. (2011). Managing across cultures issues and perspectives. Andover: Cengage Learning. Burt, S. L., Mellahi, K., Jackson, T. P., Sparks, L. (2002). Retail internationalization and retail failure: issues from the case of Marks and Spencer. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research,12(2), 191-219. doi:10.1080/09593960210127727 Cartwright, J., Mccormick, H., Warnaby, G. (2016). Consumers emotional responses to the Christmas TV advertising of four retail brands. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services,29, 82-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jretconser.2015.11.001 Alden, D. L., Steenkamp, J. E., Batra, R. (2003). Brand Pos itioning Through Advertising in Asia, North America, and Europe: The Role of Global Consumer Culture. Journal of Marketing,63(1), 75. doi:10.2307/1252002 Mellahi, K., Jackson, P., Sparks, L. (2002). An Exploratory Study into Failure in Successful Organizations: The Case of Marks Spencer. British Journal of Management,13(1), 15-29. doi:10.1111/1467-8551.00220 Peterson, M.F. and Castro, S.L. (2006) `Measurement Metrics at Aggregate Levels of Analysis: Implications for Organizational Culture Research and the GLOBE Project , Leadership Quarterly 17: 506Ã¢â¬ 21. Nisbett, R.E., Peng, K. , Choi, I. and Norenzayan, A. (2001) `Culture and Systems of Thought: Holistic vs. Analytic Cognition , Psychological Review 108: 291Ã¢â¬ 310.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
There are many different types of domestic violence. Physical abuse is the most obvious form, but this is not to say that outsiders always recognize it. Generally, physical violence causes bodily harm, using a variety of methods. Slapping, pushing, throwing, hitting, punching, and strangling are only a few methods. An object or weapon may or may not be used. There is not always physical evidence of physical abuse such as bruising, bleeding, scratches, bumps, etc., therefore, absence of physical marks does not necessarily mean physical abuse had not occurred. Physical abuse sometimes escalates to murder (Morris and Biehl 7, Haley 14-17). Sexual abuse includes any sexual act in which one person has not agreed to it. A woman can beÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Pressure, guilt trips, lying, cheating, violating trust, laying blame on her or other forms of harassment are all forms of mental abuse. Generally, to some degree, all three types of violence are used because they tend to overlap. For example, mental abuse and physical abuse can occur simultaneously when a man is yelling at his wife, telling her how worthless she is while he is beating her (Morris and Biehl 36, Haley 9-13). Violence begins at a very young age. Even if children are not exposed to an abusive household, they still experience violence in cartoons and toys. Children of abused homes learn that violence is used to resolve conflicts. Boys grow up more likely to be abusers and girls grow up more likely to be victims of abusive relationships. There are many factors we can identify and others we cannot that contribute to violence. Some of these factors are unequal power distribution, support of societal norms that reinforce and glorify violence, disregard of human rights, race and class, and the notion of a mans right to control his wife. People of color are oppressed and are victims of racism. This perpetuates violence, especially in men. 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Question: Discuss about the Medical Treatment Planning and Decisions. Answer: Introduction: Ethical dilemma in a clinical setting is a moral dilemma wherein a person has to select between two situations neither of which might resolve the situation in a manner that is ethically acceptable. Advanced Care Planning (ACP) and Directive (ACD) has been an ethical issue widely discussed in the literature (Brinkman-Stoppelenburg, Rietjens and van der Heide 2014). The present essay discusses the significance to Advanced Care Planning and Directive. The paper speaks for the use of ACD in Australia. The professional obligation to respect the autonomy of a patient gives patients the right to refuse or accept treatment. Advance care planning through verbal and written health care directives is the process of documenting the values, beliefs and preferences of the patient about the treatment. End of life discussion held between a patient and a physician is to be documented in a record. Evidence of preferences of patients can be obtained in a legitimate manner when the conversation is between the two parties in the presence of a family member (McLennan et al. 2015). As highlighted by Swetz et al. (2014) ACP has the purpose of safeguarding the autonomy of the patient when he is not in a position to take decisions regarding own healthcare. However, families are found not to agree at times with the patients preferences, and this is more prominent when a critical decision is being taken. The prime reasons for such action are the alternative option of palliative care (Heyland et al. 2013) . At times of disagreement between patient and family members, there are additional complications in the decision making process. Therefore ethical dilemma lies in the fact that though healthcare providers would be in the favour of respecting the autonomy of the patient, there would be uncertainty regarding the right actions to be taken (Abney et al. 2014). The Victoria government has passed the Medical Treatment Planning and Decisions Bill in 2016 that enshrines advance care directives in law. The Act sets distinct obligations for health practitioners providing care to patients who do not have the capacity to engage in the process of decision making. It ensures that medical decision making is consistent the perception of people regarding decisions about medical treatment and personal autonomy and is aligned with modern views (health.vic.gov.au 2016). The standpoint that is taken is that ACP and ACD would be helpful and must be encouraged for patients. Nevertheless, good communication is needed for suitable and harmless delivery of ACP. Since there is alway a scope for obtaining written directives from families and surrogates, compliance with the emotional wishes would not be a problem. ACP can improve communication, enhance relationships, and promote team functioning when a patient is being cared for. In conclusion, it is to be stated that ACP and ACD would provide benefits for the patient in the future. An instructional and value care directive would ensure that the values and views of the patients ae taken into consideration while delivering care to patients, especially for end-of-life care. A health care professional would be able to be a true decision maker in what the best treatment options for the patient are. Reference Abney, L., Burks, A., Pitman, W., Taylor, J., Obert, L. and Kern, N., 2014. Effective communication regarding advanced care planning and end-of-life care options.Womens Health Care,2. Brinkman-Stoppelenburg, A., Rietjens, J.A. and van der Heide, A., 2014. The effects of advance care planning on end-of-life care: a systematic review.Palliative medicine,28(8), pp.1000-1025. Heyland, D.K., Barwich, D., Pichora, D., Dodek, P., Lamontagne, F., You, J.J., Tayler, C., Porterfield, P., Sinuff, T., Simon, J. and ACCEPT (Advance Care Planning Evaluation in Elderly Patients) Study Team, 2013. Failure to engage hospitalized elderly patients and their families in advance care planning.JAMA internal medicine,173(9), pp.778-787. McLennan, V.E., Boddy, J.H., Daly, M.G. and Chenoweth, L.M., 2015. Relinquishing or taking control? Community perspectives on barriers and opportunities in advance care planning.Australian Health Review,39(5), pp.528-532. Swetz, K.M., Matlock, D.D., Ottenberg, A.L. and Mueller, P.S., 2014. Advance directives, advance care planning, and shared decision making: promoting synergy over exclusivity in contemporary context.Journal of pain and symptom management,47(3), pp.e1-e3. Www2.health.vic.gov.au. (2016).Medical Treatment Planning and Decisions Act 2016. [online] Available at: https://www2.health.vic.gov.au/hospitals-and-health-services/patient-care/end-of-life-care/advance-care-planning/medical-treatment-planning-and-decisions-act [Accessed 23 Sep. 2017].
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Conflict is a major subject in the world and its effects are very diverse in the society causing crisis and other effects. Conflict can be viewed as a disagreement through which the parties involved perceive a threat to their needs, interests or concerns (About Conflict, 2012). In this definition, the key terms are parties, perceive and threat. In any conflict, there must be people or entities involved who have interest in a particular thing like political power, mineral resources and other socio economic activities.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Social World Conflicts and Its Resolution Styles specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This conflict is said to be from a perceived threat which may be a real threat or something that is imagined but because of lack of understanding of the real situation. Threat in this way means a feeling that what they think is theirs may be taken away or they feel that once certain peopl e get something, they will treat them unfairly. In the lifetime of a human being, there are situations that lead one to disagreements and struggle in getting something they need in their lives or at the work place. Because of the demands of life and the desire for self actualization, people tend to avoid impediments. If a person or anything is perceived to be an impediment to the journey of self actualization, then a conflict arises. This not only experienced by human beings but also in the animal planet, itÃ¢â¬â¢s only that they may not be having a conflict resolution mechanism but the jungle rule. Another situation is when wild animals and human beings are living in bordering pieces of land as in the boundary between a national park and the general public land. In a number of cases of the world, animals are not checked and controlled by the national park management, which implies that animals may destroy or even kill human beings around that area. This is also a conflict. Howeve r, in this paper, the discussion on conflict is based on the social world and how it is handled. That is why concentration is on conflict resolution styles. Conflict styles are patterned responses that people use in conflict. They can be viewed as having two dimensions which are assertiveness and cooperativeness (Picard, 2002). In this manner, one can be able to assess the extent to which people attempt to satisfy other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s needs to avoid or resolve their conflicts. These styles are pegged on personal satisfaction while making a decision of whether one has wronged the other. Former Conflict Style There are various conflict styles that a person can adapt. In these styles, there is one that comes naturally in a human being and it can be referred to as the default conflict style. About conflict website (2012) lists four styles of conflicts namely Ã¢â¬Å"avoidance, collaborating, competitive, comprising and accommodating. In a number of cases it and be necessary to apply all of them in different situations.Ã¢â¬ For the case of this paper, avoidance and collaboration are discussed.Advertising Looking for essay on communication strategies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Runde (2007) asserts that avoiding involves a low level of interest in meeting the needs of either person. An example of this type of conflict situation is when a husband asks his wife to cook for him and the wife assumes that she has not heard. The husband repeats the same question while the wife tells him that the food is in the kitchen. The husband decides to go and cook for himself and avoids confronting the real issue. He does not ask himself why the wife does not want to cook for him. Instead, he avoids her and continues with life normally. The problem might have been solved at that point when the conflict started and could be due to some underlying issues. However, this conflict style may look okay because everybody is fo r himself hence, nobody disturbs the other but it is what one may call a time bomb. The problem remains unresolved until it becomes too big to handle. A time comes when the bomb explodes and everything is exposed. It could be a better idea to confront the issue in a different way so that the problem is solved. The reason for adopting this type of conflict style be based on a family upbringing whereby, the parents are always in conflict and the children have nothing to do about it. Therefore, the best way is to avoid the scene where mum and dad are quarrelling and move to your room. You will definitely be back when they finish. This way, you will learn to avoid the situation unknowingly and this may be part of you. In a leadership role, this conflict style does not work well because at the end of the day, the problem has to be solved. Applying this style is very dangerous like a detonative device. A personal experience is illustrated below. A teacher was teaching in a class of forty five students. Every time at the middle of the lesson, a student clicked and the teacher ignored because he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to get involved in finding out why somebody could click in the middle of a lesson. This went on for quite some time coupled with murmuring. The teacher still ignored his students. This act finally degenerated to a more embarrassing and disgusting event to the teacher because the students walked out of the class while he was teaching. Later on, he realized that he was losing most of the students while he was teaching or rather delivering his content. It would have been wise for him to try to find out why the students were clicking in class. Maybe, he should have created rapport with the students so that he can get feedback so as to avoid such a situation.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Social World Conflicts and Its Resolution Styles specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Current Conflict Styl e Collaboration is a conflict style which if well used, will enable both parties to be satisfied. Lussier (2011) asserts that the key to collaborative style is agreeing that the solution picked is the best possible one. Thus, a win situation is achieved. Harmony is achieved when this approach is used, thus encouraging people to work together. In most cases, work place communication does not tickle down properly to the work force that is the lead. Because of this conflict, usually arise from the workers and the management. The worker may decide to use avoidance conflict style and thus, affecting their performance. The management has to give notice that it needs to communicate well and in time to the employees so as to avoid a bad situation. Through delegation of duties to the junior staff, one can be able to identify the problems that may be in the lower cadres of the work force. For best performance of the company, an agreement has to be reached by both the management and junior wor kers (Lussier, 2011). In this case, the worker will be able to know what they are limited to and what their rights and responsibilities to the company. If a manager will be in a position to work with the workers and see him/herself as the team leader and not the boss then collaborative style may not work well. And this is the style to adopt in leadership. Resolution The above conflict styles tend to explain how to handle situations before they degenerate to a crisis. If a conflict is persistent, then it needs to be resolved. And there are various ways of resolving conflicts. Depending on when and where the conflict is, the use of tools like mediation and assertion may help. Think of a situation whereby, employees have gone on strike, the employee will first try to use assertion to make the employees go back to work. However, employees have a right to withdraw their services for better work conditions. When the strike persists, mediation technique may be used to resolve the conflict. Trade unions and the labour ministry may try to mediate between the workers and the employers. Finally, there may be a situation whereby, the conflict cannot be resolved after applying different mechanisms of resolution. Zastrow et al. (2010) explains that when the strategies fail then, one can probably conclude that the parties involved in the conflict are not willing to resolve it.Advertising Looking for essay on communication strategies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References About Conflict. (2012) Web. Lussier, R., (2011). Ã¢â¬Å"Management Fundamentals: Concepts, Applications, Skill DevelopmentÃ¢â¬ . Mason, OH: Cengage Learning. Picard, C., (2002). Ã¢â¬Å"Mediating Interpersonal and Small Group ConflictÃ¢â¬ . Ottawa: Dundurn Press Ltd. Runde, C. Flanagan, E., (2007). Ã¢â¬Å"Becoming a Conflict Competent Leader: How You And Your Organization CanÃ¢â¬ . San Francisco, CA: John Wiley Sons Publishers. Zastrow, C. et al., (2010). Ã¢â¬Å"Understanding Human Behavior and the Social EnvironmentÃ¢â¬ . Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning. This essay on Social World Conflicts and Its Resolution Styles was written and submitted by user Sons of the Tiger to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Princess Diana2 essays Princess Diana was born The Honorable Diana Frances Spencer on July 1, 1961. She was the third female child to Viscount and Viscountess Althorp. Diana had two older sisters, Sarah and Jane and one younger brother, Charles. Her family was well off and Diana had a privileged childhood. The Spencers made their money as successful sheep traders in the 15th century. With their fortune they built Althorp House in Northamptonshire and acquired a family crest and motto God defend the right (Morton 10). The Spencers occupied various offices of State and Court. When Dianas was born her father was disappointed she was a girl. He was hoping for his third children to finally be a male heir to carry on the Spencer name. Dianas father and the rest of the family wanted to know why her mother was only producing girls. Because of this, her mother was sent to a clinic for tests (Morton 10). She was only 23 at the time. This is ironic because today we now know the sex of the baby is determined by the father. Even though she was too young to understand, Diana believed she was to blame for her fathers disappointment. Finally, a few years later her mother delivered a boy to carry on the Spencer name. Although Diana had a beautiful christening at Sandringham Church with well-to-do Godparents, her brother Charless christening was a major event at Westminster Abbey. The Queen was the principal Godparent. The Spencer children were privileged but not snobbish. They were taught to accept people for what they are and not their position in life. The children never understood their titles until they went to school. Occasionally one of the royals would make a visit to the Spencer home and once in a while they would play with Princess Margarets sons, Princes Andrew and Edward. Diana remembers not liking to go to the Royal home, because it was big and spooky. Dianas mother...
Saturday, February 29, 2020
Biomedical and Biopsychosocial Models of Healthcare Critical Evaluation on the Future of Healthcare: The Biomedical or the Biopsychosocial Model The Biomedical Model This model has been in existence since the mid-19 th century and was predominant for physicians in the diagnosis of diseases. It comprises of four elements. It argues that, that health constitutes the freedom of pain, disease or defect which implies the normal human is healthy. In this model, the focus on the physical processes such as biochemistry, physiology and pathology of a disease do not take into consideration the role played by individual subjectivity or social factors. Unlike the biopsychosocial model, the biomedical model fails to consider negotiation between a doctor and patient in determining diagnosis. The main focus in this model is purely biological factors. It excludes social influences, environment and the psychological ones. Western countries have adopted it as a leading modern way for which health professionals treat and diagnose conditions. Regardles s of the limitations that this model expresses, it has been critical in the development of programs to control infectious diseases. In addition, it feeds more information to the biopsychosocial approach (White, 2009). The Biopsychosocial Model This is an approach that states that psychological, social and biological factors all play a key role in the human functioning in relation to illness and disease. Health is thus understood by concentrating on biological, social and psychological factors rather than entirely focusing on biological terms. It contrasts to biomedical model. Biomedical model takes the position that every disease process can be explained in accordance to deviations in normal functions such as injury, developmental abnormality in genes or virus (White, 2009). This model is used in the fields of medicine, health sociology and psychology and nursing. The acceptance, novelty and prevalence of the biopsychosocial model demonstrates variation across cultures. The model ha s been developing over time and will only mature further with health psychology designs and research. The Future of Healthcare The biopsychosocial model is at the heart of the future of healthcare. Specialization in healthcare has advanced to fields of health psychology, psychiatry, chiropractic, clinical psychology, family therapy and clinical social work. Majority of clinicians will engage the elements of biopsychosocial and biomedical models in the practices they engage in. However, it is arguable that all illnesses whether functional or organic can be managed best going by the biopsychosocial framework rather than the biomedical in practice. The two models seem to share the same goal which is improving the improvement of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s well-being. What differs is the scope on which the physician considers impairment including its origin and the possible remedies. The biopsychosocial framework expands the meaning of this goal and applies it in clinical processes. Illness is approached as the subjective sense of suffering by the patient. The goal of managing the disease thus needs to identify the specific exposures of the patient which are biological, social and psychological. Potential Disabilities of the Biomedical Model The biomedical model will lose its position in the future of healthcare as it assumes that social and psychological processes are irrelevant to the diseaseÃ¢â¬â¢s process. The potential disabilities it exposes are massive. It mainly has three liabilities. First, the model is reductionist in nature. It reduces illness to lower level processes. These include chemical imbalances and disordered cells. It thus fails to recognize the general role of psychological and social determinants. Secondly, the model is a single-factor model. The explanation for illness is in terms of biological malfunctions rather that recognition of a variety of factors with only a few being biological in the causation of illness. The third liability is that the model assumes a mind-body dualism. It maintains that the body and mind are two separate entities. The final but not least liability is that the model puts more emphasis on illness over health. The focus is aberrations that cause illness instead of the conditions that would promote health.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Research Paper Example From the geographic perspective, Utah is identified to be quite mountainous. The state is also occupied with few great valleys, such as the Virgin River Valley in its southwestern region. There are also many rivers which flow by the heart of the state making it an incredible tourism spot. With all these factors, the Salt Lake City was also referred as one of the greenest cities in the USA. The weather conditions are generally dry in the Utah region which results in light rainfall on the cities of Utah, including Salt Lake City. The temperature is perceived to be quite favorable for the cultural heritage to prosper. Due to the wide and tall mountain ranges, which act as a protection wall to the state, it enjoys a cooler weather with a higher temperature of 8 degrees and the lowest of 6 degree Celsius on an average. However, during the winter season, the temperature is hardly recorded to dip negative with a prolonged period of freezing weather (Western Regional Climate Centre, Ã¢â¬Å"C limate of UtahÃ¢â¬ ). To be summarized, four different seasons are identified in the Salt Lake City region, i.e. summer, fall, winter, and spring. ... Notably, the days are witnessed to be warmer than the nights in the winter season. In spring the city enjoys sunny weather with cold breeze (Salt Lake Tourist & Visitor Center, Ã¢â¬Å"Salt Lake City UtahÃ¢â¬ ). It is worth mentioning in this context, that the weather and climate conditions of Salt Lake City depend largely on few unique variables, i.e. its location on the earth in terms of longitude and latitude and its distance from water bodies, such as oceans and/or seas (Weber, Ã¢â¬Å"Weather, Climate and the Climate SystemÃ¢â¬ ). However, in the recent context, the climatic conditions of Salt Lake City have been recorded to be hampered due to continuous environmental hazards, such as air pollution, water pollution, and others. According to the environmental reports of Salt Lake City, the air quality has been remarked to diminish with its main causing factor identified as the increasing number of motor vehicles (Salt Lake City Corporation, Ã¢â¬Å"Air QualityÃ¢â¬ ). As a cons equence, the temperature of the city is increasing persistently due to which the county people are witnessing heavy clouds in the present days along with snowfall which is quite rare during the mid of a year, i.e. the spring time in the county. The survey reports also depict that the warmth of the weather has increased almost 3Ã ° F. To be illustrated, according to the reports, the average maximum temperature in the period of 1971 to 2000 was recorded to be around 37Ã ° F and the lowest of 21Ã ° F. But in the current statistical analysis it was recognised that the maximum temperature of the city scores around 39Ã ° F and a minimum temperature of 27Ã ° F during the period of 1874 to 2011 (Weber, Ã¢â¬Å"Weather, Climate And The Climate SystemÃ¢â¬ ). In a nutshell, the changes in the climatic